Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials U.S. Department of Energy

Amanda Petford-LongThe CNM is always an exciting venue in which to work, and this has certainly been the case over the past few months. We have welcomed many new and returning users, hosted a number of high-level tours and visits, and participated in a very successful Users Meeting. Regarding the latter, we co-organized several workshops with the Advanced Photon Source and the Electron Microscopy Center, which made for a unique and truly integrated meeting. Amongst the Argonne visitors who toured CNM facilities recently were Secretary of Energy Steven Chu; U.S. Senator Dick Durbin (D-Ill.); Illinois Governor Pat Quinn; and a delegation of industrialists from BP, Dow Chemicals, and IBM. As always, the excellence of the staff and user science at CNM were highlighted. The past few months were also a period of some concern to us all because of the uncertainty in the budget situation. I am happy to report that the CNM has been fortunate and, for at least the remainder of FY2011, our budget is healthy. I greatly appreciate the efforts of our staff to keep the facility fully operational and at the cutting edge of nanoscience, even during these difficult times.

We have welcomed two new Assistant Scientists since publication of the last newsletter: Il-Woong Jung became our resident FIB expert, and Yuzi Liu brings his TEM expertise to our newest capability. I am also delighted to highlight two prestigious awards given to our scientific staff: Jeff Greeley won a DOE Early Career Award, and Elena Shevchenko won a University of Chicago Distinguished Performance Award (details below). In other news, the final milestone for our ARRA funded projects was achieved on time in March when the inductively coupled PECVD system was commissioned. This was a complicated installation involving additions to the gas-handling system in the clean room, which was very well managed thanks to a number of staff at CNM and also within Argonne.

Finally, I would like to report on the NSRC and EBMC DOE Contractor's Meeting that was held recently in Annapolis, MD. Each of the facilities contributed poster and oral presentations discussing staff and user research, which made for a very diverse and exciting program. For the CNM, oral presentations were given by Nathan Guisinger (EMMD staff) and Stephanie Getty (Nanofab user), with poster presentations rounding out the contributions from the six CNM groups. I greatly enjoyed the opportunity to meet more of our users and to learn about the exciting science to which CNM has contributed.

Amanda Petford-Long, CNM Director

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Call for Proposals Deadline: July 8, 2011

The system is now open for submissions. We look forward to the possibility of hosting your exciting and innovative nanoscience and nanotechnology projects. (More >>)

CNM Users Meeting, May 2-5, 2011

The Argonne APS/CNM/EMC Users Meeting was held May 2-5, 2011. Thematic workshops on imaging and spectroscopy, emergent interfacial phenomena, and nanocatalysis, along with a workshop on photoinduced events in nanostructures, successfully highlighted, promoted, and stimulated user science from these three user facilities. More than 500 people registered for this cross-cutting meeting along with 45 vendor exhibits. Student awards went to Prashant Deshlahra (University of Notre Dame) for the Invited Student Talk and to Daniel Finkelstein-Shapiro (Northwestern University) for the Best Student Poster. (More >>)

Users' Executive Committee Elections

The CNM Users' Executive Committee (UEC) held its annual elections concurrent with the May Users Meeting. The new members are Steven May and Conal Murray. We thank outgoing members Dillon Fong (Chair) and Teri Odom for their invaluable service over the past three years. The new CNM UEC Co-Chairs are Gregory Wurtz and John Freeland. The UEC is an advocacy group for CNM and its user community, providing advice to the Director on matters affecting the user community, and ensuring good communication between the user community and CNM management.

CNM Workshop, April 28-29, 2011

CNM hosted a workshop on "Chemically Synthesized Nanoparticles and Catalysis" as part of Argonne's Materials for Energy Initiative, which is an incubator for creating an expansive landscape of new molecules and materials, exploring the science of synthesis in the laboratory and on the computer, and opening pathways through bottlenecks in fundamental and use-inspired arenas. New materials relevant for energy applications, especially for nanocatalysis, were the focus. (More >>)

NUFO Exhibit, April 2011

The National User Facility Organization (NUFO) represents the interests of researchers who conduct research at U.S. national scientific user facilities. Its Inaugural User Science Exhibition took place in Washington, DC, on April 7, 2011. Held in the Rayburn Office Building, this event highlighted the significant and important role that scientific user facilities play in science education, economic competitiveness, fundamental knowledge, and scientific achievements. CNM user Steven May of Drexel University represented CNM at the exhibition. (More >>)

User Notes

Acknowledgment of the use of DOE user facilities in scientific publications and technical presentations is vital for their future sustainability. An acknowledgment statement must be included in all published reports of work conducted at the Center for Nanoscale Materials. (Review the guidance.)

We are excited to chronicle the scientific advancements of CNM's users by your user activity reports. Since time is becoming more competitive, completion of reports on past projects is now required for consideration of new proposals.

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Reusable Template for the Production of Nanowires

A simple and scalable technique for the solution-based synthesis of patterned nanowires from a reusable ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) template was found by users from the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point working with the Nanofabrication & Devices Group. The process involves fabrication of electrochemical cells that alternate insulating and conducting UNCD thin films. Electrically conducting nitrogen-incorporated UNCD provides a robust electrode platform for electrodeposition of metallic and semiconducting nanowires, and also facilitate easy removal of deposited nanowires for repeat use. This bench-top technique quickly produces patterned nanowires on a large scale with diameters that are not predefined by the template, and do not require vacuum or clean room processing. This offers a path for studying nanoscale phenomena and allows for the development of a new generation of nanowire-based devices. (More >>)

TEM of SOI stressor structure

Scanning electron micrograph image showing platinum wires being lifted away from the surface of the UNCD electrode. Inset: Higher magnification image showing a single ring of platinum removed from the UNCD surface.

Mapping Deformation in Buried Semiconductor Structures

Rotation and strain fields across a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure that includes a liner of stressed Si3N4 have been mapped by users from IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center and Columbia University, working with the X-Ray Microscopy Group, using X-ray nanodiffraction (nano-XRD) at the CNM/APS Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe beamline. Improved understanding of the distribution of strain in CMOS devices is critical for continued improvement of their efficiency. Although a number of techniques have been applied to characterize strain at the nanoscale, none enable the mapping of subsurface regions or buried layers with the high spatial resolution offered by nano-XRD. This work is one of the first nondestructive studies of subsurface strain with spatial resolution better than 100 nm done without sectioning or otherwise modifying the sample. (More >>)

TEM of SOI stressor structure

Cross-sectional TEM image of the edge of the SOI/Si3N4 stressor structure. The Si3N4 liner transfers stress into the SOI material.

Atomistic insights into copper corrosion

The interaction of copper with aggressive halides such as chloride ions results in pitting corrosion, which causes significant loss of material strength and durability. In a recent study by users from Harvard University, working with scientists from the Theory & Modeling Group and The Pennsylvania State University, atomistic simulations incorporating the effects of proton and dynamic charge transfer in aqueous media were used to investigate the atomic scale origin of complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. The researchers found that corrosion involves coupled charge transfer between ionic species. The onset and extent of aqueous corrosion is dictated by chloride ion diffusion and adsorption characteristics, which in turn are strongly correlated to hydroxide and proton concentration. As a result, new atomic scale insights into the early stages of copper metal corrosion are provided.

B. Jeon, S. Sankaranarayanan, A. van Duin, and S. Ramanathan., J. Chem. Phys., accepted (2011).

corrosion simulations for the alkaline (hydroxide-rich) state

Side view of the interface between aqueous media (10M Cl) and copper substrates at 500-ps relaxation of corrosion simulations for the alkaline (hydroxide-rich) state.

Reversed Remanent Magnetic Configuration in LSMO

Perovskites of ABO3 structure are frequently used in all-oxide functional devices, such as magnetic tunnel junctions. The polar discontinuity that can occur at oxide interfaces can modify the properties of oxide thin films. Users from Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource and National Synchrotron Light Source, working with the Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Group, report an unusual reversed orientation of the remanent magnetic state for a La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) film grown via molecular beam epitaxy. A difference in the onset temperature of the reversed state was observed dependent upon substrate composition. This suggests that the development of the reversed state may be influenced, and hence potentially controlled, by modification of the film/substrate interface. The results point to an additional mechanism for controlling the magnetism in mixed-valence oxide films.

J-S Lee et al., "Reversed remanent magnetic configuration in epitaxial La1-xSrxMnO3 films," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys,. 44, 245002 (2011)

circular dicroism spectra of LSMO

Temperature-dependent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of LSMO on a SrTiO3 substrate.

Transmission Electron Microscopy Enhances Nanoscience Projects

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide structural details down to an atomic level to examine crystal structures and defects. At CNM, studies will center on structure-property relationships for nanoparticles of different shapes and compositions, nanowires, thin films, and a wide variety of other materials. The newly installed JEOL JEM-2100F is an advanced field emission TEM with the highest image quality and analytical performance in the 200-kV class with a probe size under 0.5 nm. A side-entry goniometer stage provides easy use of tilt, rotation, heating and cooling, and programmable multipoint settings without mechanical drift.

An energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (Oxford INCA Energy TEM 200 EDS) allows qualitative/quantitative elemental composition analysis at atomic resolution. Standard plan-view and cross-section TEM sample preparation techniques, such as microtome and focused ion beam, are available. Rather than serving only as a stand-alone single-purpose instrument, the TEM facility is meant to complement broader nanoscience and nanotechnology projects taking place within the CNM. Contact Yuzi Liu (NanoBio Interfaces Group) for more information.

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High-resolution TEM images of (top) gold nanoparticles encapsulated by iron oxide shells and (bottom) 300- x 12-nm FeP iron(III) phosphide nanowires. Courtesy of Bonil Koo (CNM).

Jeff Greeley

Jeffrey Greeley (Theory & Modeling Group) has been selected for the highly prestigious U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science (DOE-OS), Early Career Research Program. The purpose of this program is to support the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and to stimulate research careers in the disciplines supported by DOE-OS. The minimum award size is $500,000 per year over five years. Jeff's award, selected by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, is to study the chemical and physical processes at the molecular boundaries between solid electrodes and liquid electrolytes (More >>)

Elena Shevchenko

Elena Shevchenko (NanoBio Interfaces Group) was selected for the 2011 Distinguished Performance Award given by the UChicago Argonne, LLC, Board of Governors of Argonne National Laboratory. Distinguished Performance Awards recognize outstanding scientific or technical achievements, or a distinguished record of achievement, of select Argonne employees. Elena will be honored in an awards ceremony and reception on Tuesday, July 14.

Marcia Wood and Daniel Lopez

Daniel Lopez (Group Leader, Nanofabrication & Devices) and Marcia Wood (Group Leader, Computing & IT Services) were selected for the 2011 Strategic Laboratory Leadership Program (SLLP). Fifteen Argonne employees were nominated by their associate laboratory directors and selected by the Laboratory Director. SLLP candidates show "leadership abilities, exceptional work ethic, collaborative thinking skills, rigorous scholarship aptitude and innovative, and creative problem-solving capabilities." UChicago Argonne, LLC, sponsors the SLLP, a non-degree executive leadership program developed by the Chicago Booth School of Business.

Il Woong  Jung

Il Woong Jung has joined the Nanofabrication & Devices Group as an assistant scientist and is the CNM's resident expert on focused ion beam lithography. His current research focuses on the manipulation of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, specifically using micro- and nanomechanical devices to control the optical properties of photonic nanostructures.

Sarah Hurst

Sarah Hurst, an Argonne Director's Postdoctoral Fellow in the NanoBio Interfaces Group, recently edited "Biomedical Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols" for the Methods in Molecular Biology Series. Sarah brought together a diverse set of experts to provide a practical overview of the field from the conception of novel materials in the laboratory to their application in sensing, imaging, and therapeutics. The book also includes case studies and review chapters that discuss toxicology, regulatory pathways, patenting, marketing and commercialization, and legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of nanomaterials.

Yugang Sun

Dmitri Talapin

Early in 2011, Thomson Reuters identified the world's top 100 materials scientists and top 100 chemists over the past 10 years as ranked by the impact of their published research. Yugang Sun (Nanophotonics Group) appears at no. 5 on the Top Materials Scientists list and at no. 61 for the Top Chemists. Dmitri Talapin (joint appointment with University of Chicago and NanoBio Interfaces Group) is ranked no. 21 on the Top Chemists list. Thomson Reuters published the Top 100 Chemists table in support of the International Year of Chemistry. (More >>)



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